International Journal of Human Computer Interaction

The capability of drivers to accomplish basic tasks utilizing differing sensory modalities while maintaining lane discipline within a computer-simulated environment was assessed. Subjects provided capillary blood samples before and after using three human–machine interface designs—touch-screen, voice control, and multimodal.

Using the Leukocyte Coping Capacity test kit, the ability of leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen species in vitro was assessed. Significant post-stressor changes in leukocyte activity of varying magnitude were observed following the use of all interfaces; with the multimodal interface provoking the most pronounced response and voice control the least. Results support the proposition for using immune responsiveness as a means for quantifying psychological stress.

SHELTON-RAYNER G, MIAN R, CHANDLER S, ROBERTSON D, MACDONALD DW (2011) Quantitative physiological assessment of mental loading via altered immune functioning following interaction with differing automotive interface technologies. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 27 (9), 900–919.